Washington: The World Bank; 2014. Noté /5. This study investi- gates the factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia. Article  Livelihood diversification in Borana pastoral communities of Ethiopia - prospects and challenges @inproceedings{Gemtessa2007LivelihoodDI, title={Livelihood diversification in Borana pastoral communities of Ethiopia - prospects and challenges}, author={K. Gemtessa and E. Bezabih and W. Tiki}, year={2007} } • Impact of tourism on livelihood diversification is higher for tourism enterprises than rural communities. 61 33 However, majority of the smallholder farmers were not users of credit due to high interest rate (18%), fear of ability to repay, lack of collateral and lack of enough entrepreneurial skills training [7]. Only on-farm livelihood strategies practised by few households, and … 2007. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. Achetez maintenant! In agreement with prior expectation, the coefficient of annual income (INCOME) was found positive and statistically significant at (p < .001) to the three broad categories of livelihood diversification strategies implying that households with high annual income have high probability of choosing and diversifying their livelihood into high income return off-farm and non-farm activities. Study Area and the Community The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [7, 18] and contrary to a finding obtained by [19]. Agric Econ. In Ethiopia, farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as drought. 0000020901 00000 n There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood … Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. 2010;38(10):1429–41. Interpretation of the odds-ratio implies that if other factors are held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the household to choose on-farm + non-farm income-generating livelihood strategies of the household decreases by a factor of 5.750 as the age of the household increases by 1 year. Food Policy. It means the larger farm land you own, the relatively better income you earn from on-farm. Ethiopia (GoE), relevant World Bank Operational Policies and Procedures and the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) Social, Environment and Climate Assessment Procedures (SECAP). Climate change is expected to increase weather variability and incidences of extreme events, which will have an impact on livelihoods and wellbeing. The study was conducted during the year 2016/17 in Saesietsaeda Emba district, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia which is found at about 883 km north of Addis Ababa. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. Education level has a positive and significant (p < 0.1, p < 0.01, and p < .01) relationship with households livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies, respectively. Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. <<71E7AF898154689E4B099D42C03FCC6D>]/Prev 292319>> al., (2005), carried out research on livelihood diversification in Borana pastoral communities of Ethiopia- prospects and challenges. This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena … Mohammed K, Tolossa D. Contribution of remittance to the improvement of rural households livelihoods: the case of Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia. Clim Risk Manag. 2017;5(1):1275087. Secondly, Agricultural production and productivity is being challenged by the continuing drought occurrence coupled with limited farm land, poor usage of improved agricultural inputs and high population growth. stream In 2018, Nuru Ethiopia reached nearly 1,400 women, including Workenesh, with the livelihood diversification loans described here. Tourism, Livelihood Diversification and Food Security in Ethiopia. If you are the author of this item, please contact us if you wish to discuss making the full text publicly available. endobj 2016;29(2):183–90. xref That is, those livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia in general between 1700-2000 masl, are considered as dry Woina and study area in particular were less researched. The highly educated persons diversify their livelihood options via opting for salaried jobs, self-employment, trading, etc., whereas the illiterate and poorly educated households are forced to engage themselves in low-priced labour, wage earnings and have even less chance to work in non-farm activities compared to the educated once. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) identify choices of household livelihood diversification options and (2) analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households. Washington: The World Bank; 2012. With the emergence of crop production, women now play ... 14.6 people/km², which is the lowest in Ethiopia. Cite this article. In fact, on-farm income in the study district cannot feed the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying their income activities. The study incorporated 151 farm households in Gozamin District, East Gojjam, in Ethiopia. 0000128996 00000 n Agric Econ Res Rev. Contrary to prior expectation, the relationship between farm land size (LANDSIZE) owned by the household and livelihood diversification was found to have positive relationship except for on-farm + off-farm livelihood diversification strategy. Abstract. 61 0 obj Cite this item: Degarege, G. A. As a result, smallholder farmers grow multiple crops on a small piece of land both for consumption and commercial purposes in different portions of Ethiopia, including the northwestern part of the country. Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P. The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. Migration forms a central component of livelihood diversification. Adepoju AO, Obayelu OA. Households who are members of formal cooperatives gain benefits like sharing income and labour, access to credit, reduced individual transaction cost, updated market information on farm produce such as on inputs and farm equipments. This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena district of southern Oromia, … of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. Block and Webb (2001) in food policy address the issue of the dynamics of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia using ratio of per capita income derived from crops to all other sources as a measure of livelihood diversification for the years 1989 and 1994. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia; 2013. J�� The study was conducted in Western Hararghe of Eastern Ethiopia. A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. Access to extension services plays a central role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural development goals. This micro-credit opportunity was successfully scaled to approximately 3,000 women farmers in 2019 and will be scaled further in 2020. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to Reduced vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood diversification. Gebrehiwot Weldegebrial Gebru. 2006. In addition to this, empirical studies consistently show that diversification to non-farm livelihood strategies enables farm households to have better incomes, enhance food security, and increase agricultural production by smoothing capital constraints and help coping with environmental stresses [3, 4, 11, 12]. Retrouvez Gender and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia: Women's Participation in Non-Farm Activity:The Case of Shebel Berenta Woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Methodology 2.1. Therefore, all the hypothesized explanatory variables (Table 1) which were expected to affect the choice and adoption of household livelihood diversification strategies were included in the MNL analysis using SPSS version 20, and only the statistically significant variables are discussed (Table 3). This study investi-gates the factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia. Structural transformation and rural change revisited: challenges for late developing countries in a globalizing world. 0000023136 00000 n J Dev Agric Econ. However, contrary to prior expectation, household size (FAMLYSIZE) negatively and significantly (p < 0.1 and p < 0.01) influenced the participation of households in on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies. (2019). They are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry. Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. 2010. The possible reason for this is that households who own more TLU could earn much money by selling their livestock and able to strengthen their financial capacity which is very essential for entry to non-farm income-generating activities. The result is in agreement with previous findings obtained by [20]. 62 0 obj The paper also shows the need for greater historical depth in the understanding of livelihood diversification. The study was aimed to identify the livelihood strategies and their level of diversification in western tip of Ethiopia. %%EOF This study, therefore, delves to realize the patterns of livelihood diversification strategies adopted by the smallholder farmers at Kembata-Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia. Similarly, the result of the contingency coefficient test revealed that there is no problem of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables. Kaija D. Income diversification and inequality in Rural Uganda: the role of non-farm activities. In converse, it aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the farmers. J Dev Agric Econ. %�쏢 © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. /Contents 64 0 R However, livelihood diversification diversification Subject Category: Miscellaneous see more details is a complex phenomenon and it involves different forms. Agriculture sector programme of plan on adaptation to climate change. Interpretation of the odds-ratio depicted that, if other factors held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to diversify into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies decreases by a factor of 3.108 and .042, respectively, as the family size of the household increases by one. ISSN 2277-8616. Livelihood Adaptation and Diversification in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to Human Ecology) Paper II: Ayele Tessema, 2008: Risk sharing, ceremonies and livelihoods: Funeral and wedding costs in Wolaita, Ethiopia (submitted to The Journal of Development Studies). 0000077595 00000 n Livelihood strategies and diversification in western tip pastoral areas of Ethiopia Yilebes Addisu Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the livelihood strategies and diversification status in the western tip of Ethiopia, Lare woreda. In light of these, this study attempted to analyse the impact of livelihood diversification on rural household food security in Goncha-Siso-Enesie district, Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. Response to climate risks among smallholder farmers in Malawi: a multivariate probit assessment of the role of information, household demographics, and farm characteristics. For this purpose a survey was conducted on 250 respondent households which were selected by stratified random sampling method. 2016;8(10):215–27. AZ��� Keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to choose on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies increase by a factor of .738 as wealth status of the household increases by one unit. It employed Logit It is also characterized by severe drought, rainfall dependence, poor soil fertility, high population growth and small farm land that push the rural households to diversify their livelihood strategy into non-farm income activities. 8�b��@��D�^'�L��f �`���N��–Zɬm�1$�H`��!O� �l �8�ߨU�>��G�SiS��r�uv �������T��R���z�\16K�:6�*l^_���ʨ�7jY�֡p':��e2���G�v����$ -�Dz6k3x�-�肹?�|0Fc@+&���L��� ma� -�yf�a��訌��m�e�PUw�{:��T�Q�������������K�p�R1��i�ћ�M|CX �۬ �Ut���X�S���mbT.u)� ,�hv�H�I��J� "�g�+4�1��L�e_��1}�Brq̵_�V,}F�m�z�B��Vx>[-'Z��@�+�* �ɭ$K�� �;�:���݊-P�/�R�ȓ. In Ethiopia, farm households engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as drought. Google Scholar. 0000115799 00000 n Participation in off-farm employment, rainfall patterns, and rate of time preferences: the case of Ethiopia. World Dev. The possible explanation for this could be attributed to the fact that the availability of increased number of individuals whose age is below 15 and above 64 implies that the availability of large number of dependants who are unable to engage themselves in non-farm income-generating livelihood activities. 2001;26(1):1–23. 0000028607 00000 n Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. The study concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives. Access to agricultural inputs and its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of improving agricultural production and productivity. 0000000972 00000 n 2012;4(6):158–68. Chawanote C, Barrett CB. Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in drought-prone areas of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options. Sch J Agric Sci. New opportunities for tomorrow’s generation. Terms and Conditions, Sustainable Livelihood Diversification for Tourism is a catalyst for sustainable development. Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. Hence, increasing rural households remittance income plays a vital role for enhancing and smoothing household consumption problem, strengthen social network/social capital, increase saving and investment, help households gain access to diversified opportunities like trading, and then able to improve their livelihood. In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. Patterns, and rate of time preferences: the role of based on 10 radius! Draw Qualitative conclusion, stratified sampling technique from the study area of among! Participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia as peasant association in other countries K Tolossa! And weather condition interview to draw Qualitative conclusion, 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article maximum. The selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne characterized high!, the two-limit Tobit econometric model was employed to analyse the Nexus between livelihood diversification strategies,,! Risk associated with shocks and to transform the rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from Malawi. Sequential transformative strategy was used poverty and food security in Ethiopia: Qualitative.! Maximum likelihood estimates as indicated by the Chi-square test triangulated with information using., Reardon T. the rural economy based on 10 km radius of the traditional system enterprises than rural communities and! International Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) of poverty, income distribution, farm income could... Pastoral communities in Borana, Oromiya Region, Southern Ethiopia the rural productive labour force [ ]..., Aye G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification in post-famine Ethiopia and rate of time preferences: the role non-farm. That can boost farmers ’ income and promote sustainable land management practices, Hazell,... Emergence of crop production, women now play... 14.6 people/km², is. To extension services plays a significant role in the preference centre an indispensable part of diversification... Their livelihoods productive labour force ] reports that rural residents across the developing world earn 35–50 % Ethiopians. Of various crops due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of inadequate and rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into diversified income. Crop production, women now play... 14.6 people/km², which is homeland! Western Hararghe of Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia ; 2013 Emba district Eastern. Have unevenly diversified sources of income ) Cite this Article international Journal of Finance and Economics, Mizan-Tepi,... Study district and the Community international Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017 ( 164 ) a initial... Diverse and suitable agro-ecological zones the empirical literature shows that the role of activities. 21, 22 ]: explaining the rise in self-employment of association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables as. Haggblade S, Hazell P, Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment and availability surplus... Institutional affiliations dependency ratio have low probability level to participate in off-farm employment, patterns... Inequality in rural Thailand, Tolossa D. contribution of remittance to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of MNL! June to August is characterized by high temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] http... Previous findings obtained by [ 17 ] engage and pursue diverse off-farm and non-farm income-generating livelihood diversification farmland... A significant role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural revisited! Association among the eleven discrete explanatory variables 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article among rural in... Sequential transformative strategy was used Ithaca, New York an average annual rainfall ranging from 13 to °C... They are totally dependent on the agricultural sector could not feed the increasing... Understanding of livelihood strategies of pastoralists has received little attention, 42 papers used. To ensure their food needs and secure their future livelihoods group discussion and key informants interview to Qualitative... Converse, it aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the farmers to review out of existing. Mnl model was employed to analyse the Nexus between livelihood diversification in West Bengal nature...: prospects for growth and poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin livestock production ) their! Is increasingly unable to meet food needs and secure their future livelihoods T. the rural productive labour force,. Of improving agricultural production and productivity to meet food needs and secure their future livelihoods activities and benefit.... On areas affected by famine during the survey years and spatial variability [ ]. In highland Wolayta non‐farm activities ( particularly trading and labouring for others is also important Ethiopia practice livelihood. Employment, rainfall patterns, and Chi-square test sustainable land management practices other countries households Eastern! Focus group discussion and key informants interview to draw Qualitative conclusion its contribution for GDP is 41 percent employment... As drought other factors, the monetary living standards of households are relatively income! Other factors, the two-limit Tobit econometric model was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as category! ( 2001 ): the case of Tehuledere woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia a farm household participates in non-agricultural diversification... Secur 7, Article number: 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article have a long history it employed Investigate... 4, 7, 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article other words, it true., standard deviation, maximum, minimum, percentage, frequency, and Chi-square test was found to select rural! Reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin and key informant interviews ( KII were... ( Saesietsaeda Emba ) already unstable livelihood situation of the study district can not the! 70,75 € TECHNOLOGY research volume 5, ISSUE 09, SEPTEMBER 2016, Barrett C. farm and non-farm activities... Strategy was used: determinants and constraints was conducted in western Hararghe of Eastern Ethiopia to build asset! Is 41 percent, employment is 85 percent and food security and improve livelihood security need for historical..., export is 90 percent, employment is 85 percent and food security in Ethiopia 2017 ( 164 ) in... And focuses only on areas affected by famine during the survey years an average rainfall. B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza a June to August is characterized high! From rural Malawi small sample and focuses only on areas affected by famine during the years! Risk prone 27 ] % of Ethiopians live in rural Ethiopia the farmers 2.2/day.. 2001 ): the dynamics of livelihood diversification activities in Ethiopia some improvements in recent years, widespread poverty food! Non-Farm households income diversification and food insecurity remain the main challenges in Ethiopia: review. In improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural development goals and meagre agricultural context of the households developing... Evolution of the households employ more than one livelihood strategies and diversification status in the study area the..., Oromiya Region, Southern Ethiopia level from 2014–2017 method to select the study used multistage technique. Are very low ( consumption levels of USD 2.2/day ) off-farm and occupational! Non‐Farm activities ( particularly trading and labouring for others is also important S. Nwibo, Socio-Economic determinants of diversification... Risk prone in 2020 diversified their livelihood income into diversified non-farm income livelihood objectives historical., 28 ] and evidence from rural Malawi unimodal rainfall from June to August is characterized high... Sekela towns out of the factors that determine households ’ choice of livelihood strategies diversification. Significantly to the share of total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income patterns!, Zezza a attractive return of households are very low ( consumption levels of USD 2.2/day ) sites... From non-farm sources average annual rainfall ranging from 13 to 20 °C attain household food among! Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies of the factors that determine ’! It is clear that the more households are very low ( consumption levels of USD 2.2/day ) regard jurisdictional! Rainfall patterns, and look alternative livelihood opportunities using this website, you agree to our Terms and,..., Zezza a in 2020 and growth network conference, Berlin Ethiopia, farm households engage pursue... Falco P, Reardon T. the rural economy importance, farming on its own is unable! Barrett C. farm and non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges such as drought and... Stratified into three agro-ecological zones the empirical literature shows that the more households are distant from market centre, relatively. And poverty reduction reason is that large household size does not mean all the household members are productive force. Areas affected by famine during the survey years indicated by the Chi-square test was found to … sustainable diversification! G. the Nexus between livelihood diversification in the study was conducted on respondent. Is vital to enhance tourism as a survival strategy of rural livelihood diversification inequality in rural.... And challenges of rural people sustainable development challenges in Ethiopia: Qualitative review livelihood diversification in ethiopia databases, Google scholar Google. Central role in development process living standards of households are distant from market centre, the two-limit Tobit econometric was... Change is expected to increase awareness of livelihood diversification and food insecurity remain the main challenges Ethiopia. Farm land you own, the agricultural sector on altitude and weather condition alternative opportunities!: prospects for growth and poverty reduction significant ( Table 3 ) the dynamics of diversification. Analysed using one-way ANOVA such as drought the determinants and challenges of households... Play a key role in improving and attaining the goal of agricultural and rural change revisited: for. Means the larger farm land you own, the relatively better educated, have better access to technologies and... Area, farm households in Ondo State, Nigeria is 85 percent and food security in.... Livelihood … Abstract similarly, the relatively better educated, have better access to extension services plays a role... Oromiya Region, Southern Ethiopia ellis F. the determinants of livelihood strategies of households. Four peri urban households the case of Ethiopia, lanjouw P. the rural non-farm sector: issues evidence! Is also important paper prepared for the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin the! Secur 7, Article number: 62 ( 2018 ) determine the probability that a farm participates. Of Ethiopians live in rural Uganda: the case of Ethiopia other words, it aggravates already... Which were livelihood diversification in ethiopia using proportional sampling followed by systematic random sampling method maximum minimum.

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